开心捕鱼

乐清市诚金仪表件有限公司

全国统一客服热线:18958718912

当前位置: 开心捕鱼 > 开心捕鱼 > 行业资讯

中美贸易谈判,美国“要价”是什么?

发布时间:2018-5-4 11:56:16     浏览次数:522

CONGTELANGPUZHENGFUYI“301DIAOCHA”WEIYOUTOUXUANBUDUIZHONGGUO500YIMEIYUANSHANGPINJIAZHENGGUANSHUI,ZAIDAOZHONGGUOZHENGFUYUYIZHONGQUANFANJI,“JIAZHENGGUANSHUI”SHIJISHANGSHIZHONGMEIZAIMAOYITANPANQIANHUCHICHOUMA、HULIANGJIROUDEXUYAO,ERMEIGUODUIZHONGGUOZHENZHENGDEHEXINSUQIUJIZHONGZAIQIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANGDENGCHANYEZHENGCE、ZHISHICHANQUANBAOHU、FUWUSHICHANGZHUNRU、DUIMEINONGYEJINKOUKAIFANGDENGLINGYU。

KAOLVDAOQUANMIANMAOYIZHANBINGFEIZHONGGUOZHANYOUCELVE,TELANGPUJIAZHENGGUANSHUIZAIDANGNEIGULIWUYUAN,YUJIBENCIZHONGMEITANPANNENGGOUZAIJIYUSUOJIANMAOYINICHAQUDEYIDINGJINZHAN,DUANQIYAOJIABINGBUGAO。DANJIANYUMEIGUOZHENGFUDEHEXINSUQIUSHEJIZAIMEIFANGKANLAIDEXIANXINGYINXINGMAOYIBILEIDESHIZHIXIAOCHUYIJICHANYEZHENGCEDENGGENGWEIKUANFANDELINGYU,ZHONGZHANGQIYAOJIABINGBUDI,ZHONGMEIZAIJINGMAOGUANXISHANGDEBOYIJIANGSHIYIGEZHANGQIDEGUOCHENG。

一、美国政府核心诉求是什么:产业政策、知识产权保护、服务贸易、数字贸易、农业

开心捕鱼 ZHONGMEIMAOYIMOCAJIJIANGCONGZAOSHIJIEDUANMAIRUSHIZHITANPANJIEDUAN。BAIGONG4YUE30RIFABUWENJIANCHENG,MEIGUODAIBIAOTUANJIANGZAI5YUE3RIDIDABEIJINGYUZHONGGUOJIUJINGMAOWENTIJINXINGCUOSHANG,ZAIGONGBUDEDAIBIAOTUANMINGDANZHONG,CHULECIQIANMEITIBAODAODEDUIHUAYINGPAIDECAIZHENGBUZHANGMUNUQIN、MAOYIDAIBIAOLAITEXIZE、SHOUXIJINGJIGUWENKUDELUOHEMAOYIGUWENNAWALUOZHIWAI,ZUIXINGONGBUDEDAIBIAOTUANCHENGYUANHAIJIARULEDUIHUATAIDUXIANGDUIWENHEDESHANGWUBUZHANGLUOSIHEGUOJIJINGJISHIWUFUGUWENAISENSITATE、MEIGUOZHUHUADASHIBULANSITADE。DAIBIAOTUANTUANDUIRENYUANDEDAFUKUOCHONGHERENYUANDUIHUATAIDUDEZHONGXINPINGHENG,BIAOMINGZHONGMEIJINGMAOMOCACONGCIQIANDETIAOQIZHENGDUAN、CHUANGZAOCHOUMADEJILIEDUIKANGJIEDUAN,JINRUDAOWUSHITANPANJIEDUAN。

ZAICIBEIJINGXIA,LEJIETELANGPUZHENGFUDUIZHONGGUOZAIMAOYIGUIZESHANGDEHEXINSUQIUHEZHUYAOKANFA,JIEHEGUONEISHIJIQINGKUANGHEZISHENGAIGEKAIFANGXUYAO,CAINENGZAIMAOYITANPANZHONGZUODAOZHIJIZHIBI、YOUJINYOUTUI、YOURENYOUYU。

1.1 美国贸易代表办公室:中国存在7大类47小类贸易壁垒

MEIGUOMAOYIDAIBIAOBANGONGSHI(USTR)ZUOWEIZONGTONGDENEIGEJIGOU,FUZEZHIDINGHEXIEDIAOMEIGUOMAOYIGUIZE,MUQIANQIBANGONGSHISHOUNAOLAITEXIZEYESHICICIFUHUATANPANDEGUANJIANRENWU。USTRMEINIANDOUHUIGONGBUGUOBIEMAOYIBILEIDEPINGGUBAOGAO,XIANGGUOHUIXIANGXICHANSHUMEIGUOZHUYAOMAOYIHUOBANGUOQUYINIANCUNZAIDEMAOYIBILEIQINGKUANG,《2018NIANDUGUOBIEMAOYIBILEIPINGGUBAOGAO》LIEJULEZHONGGUOKENENGCUNZAIDEPOHUAIGONGPINGMAOYIHUOWEIFANWTOGUIZEDEZHUYAOMAOYIBILEI,SHEJICHANYEZHENGCE、ZHISHICHANQUANBAOHU、FUWUMAOYI、SHUZIMAOYI、NONGYE、ZHENGCETOUMINGDU、FALVKUANGJIA7DALEI47XIAOLEI。USTRDUIZHONGGUOZAIMAOYIGUIZESHANGDE“ZHIZE”YUSHIJIZHONGMEIMAOYIGUANXIBIDINGCUNZAIWUJIESHENZHIPIANPO,DANNENGGOUFANYINGZHENSHIDE、MEIGUOZHENGFUDUIZHONGMEIMAOYIGUIZEDEDANYOUHUOZHEKANFA。

2018NIANQIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANGDENGCHANYEZHENGCEZAIMEIGUODEGUANZHUMINGDANZHONGDEZHONGYAOXINGTISHENG。XIANGJIAOYU2017NIANDUDEPINGGUBAOGAO,2018NIANUSTRJIANGCHANYEZHENGCEFANGZAILEGENGJIAZHONGYAODEWEIZHI,ZAIBAOGAOZHONGDESHUNXUYOUDIERDALEITISHENGZHIDIYILEI;TONGSHI,ZAICHANYEZHENGCENEIBU,QIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANG、ZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025JIHUA、TOUZIXIANZHIDESHUNXUBEIDAFUTIQIAN。

1.2彼得森国际经济研究所(PIIE):美国需要中国的贸易协议而不是“救济”

PIIEJINQIWENZHANG《US Needs China Trade Deals, Not "Remedies"》ZAIBIAOTIZHONGMINGQUEZHICHU,MEIGUOXUYAODESHIZHONGGUODEMAOYIXIEYIERBUSHIBUCHANG。YAOQIUZHONGGUOANZHAOSHIJIETONGXINGGUIZEXINGSHI,BAOKUODUIZHISHICHANQUAN、GUOYOUQIYE、HAIWAITOUZIXIANGFADAGUOJIAYIYANGSHEZHIGENGJIAYANGEDEGUIDING。

1.3布鲁金斯学会:农产品进口、知识产权保护、强制技术转让、减少产能过剩和服务业开放承诺

BULUJINSIXUEHUIZAIQI《How to avert a trade war with China》YIWENZHONGZHICHU,TELANGPUZHENGFUYINGGAIXIANGZHONGGUOZHENGFUTICHUMINGQUEDE、XIANGXIDESUQIUQINGDAN,QIZHONGBAOKUO(1)ZHONGGUOSHICHANGDUIMEIGUONONGCHANPINCHUKOUDEZHONGDAKAIFANG;(2)ZHONGGUOZHENGFUJIAQIANGZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUDEXINCHENGNUO;(3)JINZHIJIANGQIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANGZUOWEISHICHANGZHUNRUTIAOJIANDEXINDE、JUYOUQUANWEIXINGDE、KEZHIXINGDECHENGNUO;(4)XINDE、KELIANGHUADEXUEJIANGUOSHENGCHANNENGDEBAOZHENG,YOUQISHIGANGHELVXINGYE;(5)ZAIJINRONGFUWU、YILIAOBAOJIAN、YULEHEQICHEDENGGUANJIANFUWULINGYUDEYOUJIEZHIRIQIDEKAIFANGCHENGNUO。ZUIZHONGYAOQIUZHONGGUOZUOCHUYOUZHUNQUESHIJIANXIANZHIDEGUANYUSHICHANGZHUNRUHEGONGPINGMAOYIDETANPANCHENGNUO。TONGSHI,CONGBIAOSHULAIKAN,BULUJINSIXUEHUIYEGENGJIAQIANGDIAOLECHENGNUOHUOZHECUOSHIDEKELIANGHUA、KEZHIXINGXINGHEYOUMINGQUEJIEZHIRIQI。

WULUNSHIMEIGUOZHENGFUDENEIGEJIGOUUSTRHAISHIMEIGUOHEXINZHIKU,DUIZHONGGUOZAIMAOYIGUIZESHANGDESUQIUJUNZHUYAOJIZHONGZAICHANYEZHENGCE、ZHISHICHANQUANBAOHU、FUWUMAOYISHICHANGZHUNRU、SHUZIMAOYIBILEIHENONGYEMAOYILINGYU。ERQIZHONGZUIHEXINDESUQIUSHIQIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANG、TOUZIXIANZHIDENGCHANYEZHENGCEHEZHISHICHANQUANBAOHU、FUWUSHICHANGZHUNRUDENGGUIZEDEXIUZHENGHESHIJILUODI。

二、如何理解美国政府核心诉求:关注政策更关注手段、关注规则修正更关注落地

WOMENJIYUUSTRHEMEIGUOHEXINZHIKUDUI7DALEI47XIAOLEIWENTIDEKANFA,LIJIEMEIGUOZHENGFUDUIZHONGGUOMAOYIGUIZEHEXINSUQIUDEJUTIYAOQIU。BUFENSHEJIDAOJUTIZHENGCEHEGUIZETIAOKUANDEXIUZHENGSUQIU,LIRU,《WAISHANGCHANYETOUZIZHIDAOMULU》DUIXIANGGUANCHANYEDEXIANZHIHEJINZHITOUZI;BUFENSHEJIDUIXINGZHENGSHENPIYINXINGBILEIDEXIAOCHUTICHUYAOQIU,LIRU,USTRRENWEIHAIWAIJINRONGJIGOUZAIZHONGGUOJINGNEISHEZHIFENZHIJIGOUDEXINGZHENGSHENPIKENENGCUNZAITUOYANXIANXIANG;BUFENSHEJIDUICIQIANCHENGNUODUIXIANDEYAOQIU,LIRU,USTRRENWEIJIANGZHONGGUOGEJIZHENGFUDEBENTUCHUANGXINZHENGCEYUZHENGFUCAIGOUYOUDAITUOGOUDECHENGNUOSHANGWEIDUIXIANDENG。

2.1产业政策(INDUSTRIAL POLICIES)

2018NIANUSTRJIANGCHANYEZHENGCEFANGZAILEZHONGGUOMAOYIBILEIDESHOUYAOWENTI,BINGQIETICHUQIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANG、ZHONGGUOZHIZAO2015JIHUA、BENTUCHUANGXIN、TOUZIXIANZHIDENG14GEWENTI,YESHI7DALEIBILEIZHONGXIXIANGWENTIZUIDUODELINGYU。

(1)强制技术转让:主要存在于汽车、金融和通信行业

MEIGUORENWEIZHONGGUOSHENMEXINGWEIGOUCHENGQIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANG?USTRZHICHU,QIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANGSHIMEIGUOZHENGFUCHIXU、BINGQIEGAODUGUANZHUDEWENTI,BAOKUO2017NIANDUIZHONGGUOFAQIDE“301”DIAOCHA,ZHONGDIANGUANZHUZHONGGUOZAIJISHUZHUANRANGFANGMIANCUNZAIDEYIXIASIZHONGXINGWEI:(1)SHIYONGDUOZHONGZHENGCEGONGJUHUOZHEQIANGZHIYAOQIUXIANGZHONGGUOQIYEZHUANRANGJISHUHUOZHISHICHANQUAN;(2)BODUOMEIGUOQIYEYUZHONGGUOQIYEZAIXUKETANPANZHONGSHEZHISHICHANGHUATIAOKUANDENENGLI;(3)TONGGUOYINDAOHUOBUGONGPINGDICUCHENGZHONGGUOQIYEBINGGOUHUOSHOUGOUZICHANLAIHUOQUZUIQIANYANDEJISHUHEZHISHICHANQUAN;(4)TONGGUOYINDAOHUOZHEZHICHIWEIJINGSHOUQUANQINRUMEIGUOSHANGYEDIANNAOWANGLUOHUOQUSHANGYELIYI。

ZHONGGUOZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUZAIDAFUGAISHAN,DANZHIDUBIAOZHUNKENENGRENGRANDIYUGUOJISHUIPING。GUOQUSHIJINIAN,ZHONGGUOZAIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUFANGMIANDEBUDUANGAISHANYEDEDAOMEIGUODERENKE,PIIEZAI《China: Forced Technology Transfer and Theft?》YIWENZHONGZHICHU,GUOQUJINIANZHONGGUOXIANGHAIWAIZHIFUDEZHISHICHANQUANSHIYONGXUKEFEIGUIMOKUAISUZENGZHANG,2017NIANYIJINGJIEJIN300YIMEIYUAN;2016NIANZHONGGUOZHIFUDEZHISHICHANQUANSHIYONGXUKEFEIGUIMOZAIQUANQIUPAIMINGDIWU,DANKAOLVDAOAIERLANHEHELANZHIFUDEFEIYONGZHUYAOSHIFASHENGZAIYIXIEHAIWAIKONGGUGONGSIWEILEBISHUICHENGLIDEZIGONGSI,SHIJISHANGZHONGGUOZHENGFUDEZHISHICHANQUANSHIYONGXUKEFEIZAIQUANQIUPAIMINGJIANGDADAODIERWEI。PIIERENWEIXIFANGGUOJIAKENENGGAOGULEZHONGGUOQIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANGDEGUIMOBINGHULVELEZHONGGUOZAIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUFANGMIANDEBUDUANGAISHANQUSHI。DANDUIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUDEBIAOZHUNKENENGRENGRANDIYUGUOJISHUIPING。

QIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANGWENTIDEGUANJIANZAIYUCUNZAITOUZIXIANZHI,ZHUYAOCUNZAIYUQICHE、JINRONGHETONGXINXINGYE。PIIEZAIQIJINQIFABUDE《US Needs China Trade Deals, Not "Remedies"》YIWENZHONGZHICHU,ZHONGGUOSHIMEIGUOTONGYONGQICHEZUIDADESHICHANG,DANZHONGGUOMEIYOUTONGYONGQICHEZHONGGUOGONGSI(GM China),ZHIYOUSHANGQITONGYONGQICHE(SAIC-GM),ZHONGGUODUIBUFENXINGYEDEFALVDE、HUOFEIZHENGSHIFALVTIAOWENDEZHUNRUXIANZHISHIDEMEIGUOQIYEZAIJINRUZHONGGUOSHICHANGDEGUOCHENGZHONGZHINENGXUANZEYIHEZIGONGSIDEXINGSHI,YAOMEFANGQIZHONGGUOSHICHANG,YAOMECHENGLIHEZIGONGSIYUHEZUOHUOBANFENXIANGLIRUNHEJISHU。ZHEIZHONGXIANZHICHULEZAIQICHEXINGYECUNZAI,HAICUNZAIYUJINRONGHETONGXINXINGYE。

(2)中国制造2025计划:对政策工具和可能造成的市场扭曲表示担忧

ZAIMEIGUOMAOYIDAIBIAOBANGONGSHI2017NIANDEGUOBIEMAOYIBILEIPINGGUBAOGAOZHONG,ZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025JIHUAZHISHIZUOWEIZHANLVEXINGXINXINGCHANYEZHONGDEYIBUFEN,ERZAI2018NIANBANBENZHONG,ZHIJIEJIANGZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025JIHUAZUOWEICHANYEZHENGCEZHONGDEYIGEBIAOTINEIRONGZHONGDIANQIANGDIAO,ZUJIANMEIGUODUIYUZHEIGEWENTIDEZHONGSHICHENGDU。DANCONGJUTIBIAOSHULAIKAN,MEIGUOZHENGFUZHUYAODANYOUZHONGGUOZAISHIXIANGAIJIHUADEGUOCHENGZHONGKENENGCHUXIANSHIYONGBUGONGPINGSHOUDUANHEKENENGZAOCHENGXIANGGUANXINGYECHANNENGGUOSHENGDEWENTI。

开心捕鱼 MEIGUODUIZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025JIHUADEDANYOUZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIMUDEXING、ZHENGCEGONGJUHEKENENGZAOCHENGDESHICHANGNIUQUSANFANGMIAN:

开心捕鱼 MUDEXINGFANGMIAN,USTRRENWEI,ZHONGGUOZHIZAOYE2025JIHUABIAOMIANSHANGSHIWEILESHIXIAN“ZIZHUCHUANGXIN”,BEIHOUDEZHENSHIMUDESHI,TONGGUOGEZHONGKENENGDESHOUDUANZAIZHONGGUOSHICHANGSHANGYONGZHONGGUOJISHU、CHANPINHEFUWUQUDAIGUOWAIJISHU、CHANPINHEFUWU,ZUIZHONGBANGZHUZHONGGUOQIYEZHUDAOGUOJISHICHANG。MEIGUODEMEIGUOWAIJIAOGUANXIWEIYUANHUI(Council on Foreign Relations,CFR)YEZAIBAOGAOZHONGZHICHU,ZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025JIHUADEYIXIANGBINGBUSHIXIANGDEGUO、MEIGUO、HANGUOHERIBENNEIYANGJIARUGAOKEJIJINGJITIDEXINGLIE,ERSHIWANQUANQUDAITAMEN。BIAOMINGMEIGUOZHENGFUHEZHIKUDUIYUZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025JIHUADEKANFAYUGUONEIZHENGCEFANGXIANGCUNZAIYANZHONGWUJIE。

开心捕鱼 ZHENGCEGONGJUFANGMIAN,USTRRENWEIZHONGGUOKENENGSHIYONGYIXILIEZHENGCEGONGJU,BAOKUOGUANGFANDEGUOJIAGANYUHEZHICHI,TONGGUOXIANZHI、LIYONG、QISHIWAIGUOQIYE、WAIGUOJISHU、CHANPINHEFUWULAIZHICHIGUONEICHANYEFAZHAN。MEIGUOWAIJIAOGUANXIWEIYUANHUI(CFR)BAOGAORENWEIZHONGGUOZAI2015NIANYILAIJIJITUIJINGAOKEJIQIYEDEHAIWAISHOUGOU、QIANGZHIJISHUZHUANRANGHESHANGYEJIANDIEHUODONGYIHUOQUJIANDUANJISHUHEZHUANYOUJISHU。MEIGUOZHENGFUDUIZHONGGUOZAIZHENGCEFUCHIDESHOUDUANSHANGSHIFOUCUNZAIWUJIE,QIAQIASHIBENCIZHONGMEIMAOYITANPANXUYAOZHONGDIANMIHEDEFENQI。

ZAIJIEGUOFANGMIAN,USTRRENWEI,JIANYUZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025JIHUADEZHANLVEGAODUHEKENENGJINXINGDEDAGUIMOZHENGFUZIYUANTOURU,YOUKENENGJIAJUSHICHANGNIUQUBINGDAILAIXIANGGUANXINGYEDECHANNENGGUOSHENGWENTI。

(3)本土创新:关注本土创新导向下的政府采购偏好

开心捕鱼 CONGUSTRGUANYUZHONGGUOBENTUCHUANGXINDEBIAOSHULAIKAN,MEIGUOZHUYAOGUANZHUDESHIZAI“BENTUCHUANGXIN”ZHENGCEXIA,DUIZHONGGUOYONGYOUHEFAZHANDEZHISHICHANQUANTIGONGLEYOUDAI(YOUXIANQUAN),TEBIESHIZAIZHENGFUCAIGOUFANGMIANCUNZAIPIANHAOBENTUJISHUHEQIYEDEKENENG。BINGQIE,USTRTICHU,ZHONGGUOZAI2012HE2014NIAN、2016NIANZHONGMEISHANGMAOLIANWEIHUI(JCCT)SHANGCHENGNUOLEJIANGZHONGGUOGEJIZHENGFUDEBENTUCHUANGXINZHENGCEYUZHENGFUCAIGOUYOUDAITUOGOU,USTRRENWEIZHEIYICHENGNUOMUQIANMEIYOUWANQUANDUIXIAN。

(4)投资限制:关键服务领域、农业、采掘业和特定制造领域存在投资限制

USTRRENWEI,ZHONGGUOWEILEBAOHUGUONEICHANYECUNZAIXUDUOTOUZIXIANZHICUOSHI,ZHUYAOCUNZAIYUGUANJIANFUWULINGYU、NONGYE、CAIJUEYEHETEDINGZHIZAOYELINGYU。BINGQIE,LIEJULEZHONGGUOCUNZAIDESILEIXIANZHICUOSHI,(1)MEIYOUSHIZHIXINGFANGKAIWAIZIGUCHIGUBILISHANGXIANXIANZHIHEHEZIGONGSIYAOQIU;(2)ZAIGUANGFANDETOUZILINGYURENGRANBAOCHIGEAN(case-by-case)DEXINGZHENGSHENPIZHIDU;(3)QIANZAIDE、GUOYUKUANFANDEGUOJIAANQUANSHENCHAJIZHI;(4)《WANGLUOANQUANFA》HEXIANGGUANSHISHICUOSHIDAILAIRIYIZENGZHANGDEFUMIANYINGXIANG。

YOUHAIWAIQIYEXIANGMEIGUOZHENGFUFANKUI,RENWEIZHONGGUOZHENGFUGUANYUANKENENGHUISHEDINGXIANGYINGDETOUZIPIZHUNTIAOJIAN,YAOQIUWAIGUOQIYEZHUANRANGJISHU,ZAIZHONGGUOJINXINGYANFASHENGCHAN,MANZUYUCHUKOUHUOSHIYONGDANGDIWULIAOYOUGUANDEJINGYINGYAOQIU,HUOZUOCHUYOUJIAZHIDE、TEDINGJIAOYIDESHANGYERANGBU。DUIYUZHONGGUOZAI2017NIANXUANBUFANGSONGYINXING、SHOUXIANFUWU、ZHENGQUANHEZICHANGUANLIFUWUTOUZIXIANZHI,USTRZHICHUHAIXUGUANCHASHIFOUHUIDEDAOLUOSHI。

CHUANTONGJIJINHUIZAI《Beyond Technology Transfer: Reducing Investment Restrictions in China》BAOGAOZHONGZHICHU,ZHONGGUOZUIXINBANBENDE《WAISHANGCHANYETOUZIZHIDAOMULU》DUI35GEXINGYEDEWAISHANGTOUZIJINXINGLEXIANZHIHEYAOQIUYIHEZIGONGSIDEXINGSHI,BAOKUOBAOXIAN、SHICHANGDIAOCHA、DIANYING、QICHEHECHUANBOZHIZAODENG,HAIZHIJIEJINZHIBAOKUOKUANGCHANKANTAN、YANCAOXIAOSHOUHECHUBANDENG28GEXINGYETOUZI。CHUANTONGJIJINHUIJIANYIMUNUQINZAIYUZHONGGUODEMAOYITANPANGUOCHENGZHONG,YAOQIUZHONGGUOQUXIAO28GEXINGYEDEJINZHITOUZIXIANZHI,CHUFEIWEILEGUOJIAANQUANDEXUYAO;YAOQIUZHONGGUOQUXIAODUI35GEXINGYEYAOQIUYIHEZIXINGSHITOUZIDEXIANZHI。

(5)安全可控的信息技术政策:“安全可控”条款可能限制非中国企业ICT产品

开心捕鱼 USTRRENWEI,ZHONGGUO2016NIAN11YUETONGGUODE《WANGLUOANQUANFA》YAOQIUXINXITONGXINJISHUSHEBEIHEGUANJIANBUMENDEQITAXINXITONGXINJISHUCHANPINHEFUWUYAO“ANQUANKEKONG”,ZHEIYIYAOQIUSHIDEZHENGFUKEYIYIDUOZHONGFANGSHIDUIFEIZHONGGUOQIYEZAOCHENGBULIYINGXIANG。

开心捕鱼 CONG2013NIANKAISHI,ZHONGGUOZAIGEZHONGCUOSHIZHONGDOUTIDAOLE“ANQUANKEKONG”DEYAOQIU,GUIDINGXINXIJISHUYONGHUGOUMAIZHONGGUOCHANPINHEZHICHIZHONGGUOFUWUGONGYINGSHANG,QIANGJIADANGDICHENGFENYAOQIU、DANGDIYANFAYAOQIUHEYIGUOJIAANQUANWEIYOUYAOQIUHAIWAIQIYEPILUYUANDAIMAHUOQITAZHISHICHANQUAN。ZAIJUTIDEXINGYEZHONG,XIANGGUAN“ANQUANKEKONG”DEGUIDINGBUDUANTICHU,JUTIJIUBAOKUO2014NIANYINJIANHUIXUANBUDAO2019NIANYINXINGXITONGSHIYONGDE75%DEICTCHANPINSHI“ANQUANKEKONG”DE,USTRRENWEIZHEISHIJISHANGSHIZAIYINXINGXITONGDUIHAIWAIICTTIGONGSHANGDEXIANZHI。CIHOU,BAOJIANHUIYECHUTAILELEISIDEYAOQIU。

开心捕鱼 ZHONGFANGCENGZAI2015NIANMEIZHONGZHANLVEHEJINGJIDUIHUAHUIYI、ZHONGMEISHANGMAOLIANWEIHUIYIJI2016NIANZHONGMEISHANGMAOLIANWEIHUISHANGCHENGNUOZAI“ANQUANKEKONG”ZHENGCEBUHUIBUBIYAODIXIANZHIHUOZUAIXINXITONGXINJISHUCHANPIN、FUWUHUOJISHU(ICTCHANPIN)WAIGUOGONGYINGSHANGDESHANGYEXIAOSHOUJIHUI,HUODUISHANGYEQIYEGOUMAI、XIAOSHOU、SHIYONGICTCHANPINBUBIYAODISHIJIAJIYUGUOBIEDETIAOJIANHEXIANZHI。USTRRENWEI,ZHONGDUOCAOANHE2017NIAN《WANGLUOANQUANFA》DEZUIZHONGSHISHIKENENGFANYINGLEZHONGGUOBUDASUANDUIXIANCHENGNUODETAIDU。

(6)补贴:中国对国内部分产业的补贴可能违反世贸组织规定

开心捕鱼 USTRRENWEIZHONGGUOJIXUXIANGGUONEICHANYETIGONGDALIANGBUTIE,ZHEIDUIMEIGUOGONGYEZAOCHENGLESUNHAI,YIXIEBUTIEKENENGBUFUHESHIMAOZUZHIDEGUIDING。ZAICHENGXUSHANG,MEIGUORENWEIZI16NIANQIANZHONGGUOJIARUSHIMAOZUZHIYILAI, SHANGWEIXIANGSHIMAOZUZHITIJIAOYIFENYOUZHONGYANGZHENGFUTIGONGDEBUTIEDEWANZHENGTONGBAO,ZHIDAO2016NIAN7YUE,CAIXIANGWTOSHOUCITIJIAOGUANYUDIFANGZHENGFUBUTIEDETONGBAO。

(7)产能过剩:中国过剩产能扭曲全球市场,中国制造2025计划可能造成产能过剩

ZAIGANGTIEHELVDENGZHIZAOYE,ZHONGGUOSHENGCHANGUOSHENGNIUQUQUANQIUSHICHANG,YIFANGMIANSHIDUIMEIZHIJIECHUKOU,LINGYIFANGMIANQUANQIUJIAGEXIAJIANGHEGONGYINGGUOSHENG,SHIDEJISHISHIZUIJUJINGZHENGLIDESHENGCHANSHANGYENANYIWEICHISHENGCUN。LIRU,2011-2015NIAN,ZHONGGUODEYUANLVCHANLIANGZENGZHANGCHAOGUO50%,2015NIANKAISHIQUANQIUYUANLVJIAGECHUXIANDAFUXIADIE,DANXINDEDAXINGSHESHIZAIZHONGGUOZHENGFUDEZHICHIXIADALIANGJIANCHENG,MUQIANZHONGGUOYUANLVCHANLIANGZHANQUANQIUDEBIZHONGCHAOGUO50%。CHUNJIANFANGMIAN,MUQIANZHONGGUOCHANNENGKUAISUZENGZHANGDANGUONEIXUQIUTINGZHI,YUJIDAO2020NIANCHANLIANGNIANJUNZENGSU3%,ERGUONEIXUQIUNIANJUNZENGSUJINWEI1.2%,JINERDAOZHICHUKOUKUAISUZENGZHANG。

ZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025JIHUAKENENGDAOZHIBUFENXIANGGUANXINGYECHUXIANCHANNENGGUOSHENGDEWENTI。GENJUZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025NIANDEGONGYEJIHUA,ZHONGGUOZHENGFUJIANGFAFANGSHUQIANYIMEIYUANZIJIN,YIZHICHIZHONGGUOQIYE,BINGYAOQIUTAMENSHIXIANGUONEISHICHANGFENEDEYUXIANSHEDINGMUBIAO,USTRRENWEIZHENGFUDEZHENGCEGULIHEZIYUANTOURUKENENGZAOCHENGXIANGGUANCHANYECHUXIANCHANNENGGUOSHENGDEKENENG。

(8)出口限制:对关键原材料的出口限制影响海外下游生产商

开心捕鱼 USTRRENWEI,ZHONGGUOJIEHESHIYONGCHUKOUPEIE、CHUKOUXUKEZHENG、CHUKOUZUIDIXIANJIA、CHUKOUGUANSHUIHEQITAXIANZHICUOSHI,DUIYIXIEZAISHIJIEJUYOUZHONGYAODIWEIDEYUANCAILIAODECHUKOUJINXINGXIANZHI,YIXISHENGWAIGUOXIAYOUSHENGCHANSHANGWEIDAIJIA,WEIZHONGGUODEXIAYOUSHENGCHANSHANGTIGONGJUDADEJINGJIYOUSHI,TONGSHIPOSHIHAIWAIXIAYOUSHENGCHANSHANGJIANGYEWU、JISHUHEJIUYEGANGWEIZHUANYIDAOZHONGGUO。

开心捕鱼 MUQIANMEIGUOZHUYAOTONGGUOSHIMAOZUZHIZHENGDUANJIEJUEJIZHIXIADECUOSHANGQINGQIULAIJIEJUE,2013NIAN、2014NIANMEIGUOXIANHOURANGZHONGGUOFANGKAILEDUIXITU、WUHEMUDENGYUANCAILIAODECHUKOUXIANZHI,2016NIANMEIGUOFAQIDISANCIWTOZHENGDUANJIEJUEJIZHIXIADECUOSHANGQINGQIU,YAOQIUZHONGGUOFANGKAITI、GE、GU、TONG、SHIMO、YIN、QIAN、MEI、HUASHI、TANHEXI11ZHONGYUANCAILIAODECHUKOUPEIEHECHUKOUGUANSHUI。

(9)增值税退税和相关政策:通过出口增值税退税政策管理出口

USTRRENWEI,ZHONGGUOZHENGFUZAI2017NIANSHITUTONGGUOTIGAOHUOJIANGDICHUKOUKEHUODEDEZENGZHISHUITUISHUILAIGUANLIXUDUOCHUJI、ZHONGJIHEXIAYOUCHANPINDECHUKOU,ZAIGUOJISHICHANGSHANGZAOCHENGJUDADEPOHUAI、BUQUEDINGXINGHEBUGONGPING,YOUQISHIYIXIEZHONGGUOZAIGUOJISHICHANGSHANGZHANJUZHONGDABIZHONGDECHUKOUCHANPIN。TONGSHI,ZENGZHISHUITUISHUIXIANGGUANZHENGCEHEQITAZHENGFUGUODUBUTIE,YEHUIDAOZHIYANZHONGDECHANNENGGUOSHENGWENTI。ZAI2014NIANZHONGMEIZHANLVEYUJINGJIDUIHUASHANG,ZHONGGUOCHENGNUOGAISHANZENGZHISHUITUISHUIZHIDU,BAOKUOJIJIYANJIUGUOJIZUIJIASHIJIAN,SHENHUAYUMEIGUOZAIZHEIYIWENTISHANGDEGOUTONG,MEIGUORENWEIZHONGFANGMUQIANDEJINZHANJIAOXIAO。

(10)标准和政府采购等其他问题

2.2 知识产权(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS)

(1)商业秘密保护:对商业秘密法律保护不足

JINNIANLAI,TONGGUOQIEQUSHANGYEMIMIWEIZHONGGUOQIYEMOUQULIYIDEHUODONGZAIZHONGGUOGUONEIHEGUOWAIDOUSHIYOUFASHENG,DANZUIFANJIXUXIAOYAOFAWAI,ZHONGGUODUIQIEQUSHANGYEMIMIXINGWEIDEFALVDAJILIDUHAIYUANYUANBUZU;TONGSHI,USTRRENWEI,ZHONGGUOZHENGFUKENENGCUNZAIZHICHIQIEQUSHANGYEMIMIHUOJIJIDIZUNAODUISHANGYEMIMIDEYOUXIAOBAOHUDEKENENG。YUCITONGSHI,USTRYEKENDINGLE2017NIANZHONGGUO《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》ZHENGSHIBANFABU,ZAIBAOHUSHANGYEMIMIFANGMIANXIANGDUIYUXIANQIANDEFALVYOUSUOGAISHAN。

(2)恶意商标注册:对恶意商标抢注的打击力度不够

2016NIAN11YUEDEJCCTHUIYISHANG,ZHONGGUOZHENGSHIZHENGZAICAIQUJINYIBUCUOSHIDAJIEYISHANGBIAOQIANGZHU。JINGUANRUCI,MEIGUOQIYERENGZAIMIANLINZHONGGUOSHENQINGRENZHUCESHANGBIAOBINGWEISHUJINERCHIYOUZHEIYIEYIZHUCEXINGWEI。

(3)生物制药:药品专利保护、药品注册与价格承诺分开等具体问题

开心捕鱼 USTRDUIZHONGGUOZAISHENGWUZHIYAOLINGYUTICHULEYIXIASIDIANZHONGYAONEIRONG:

开心捕鱼 BUJIAOSHIYANSHUJU:2017NIANZHONGGUOXIUDING《ZHUANLISHENCHAZHINAN》,YUNXUZHUANLISHENQINGRENZAISHENQINGZHUANLIQIJIANBUJIAOSHIYANSHUJU,DANYOUBAODAOZHICHUSHENCHAYUANZAIYUNYONGZHEIYIGUIZESHIBUYIZHIBINGQIEFANWEITAIZHAI,SHIDEZHUANLISHENQINGRENBUJIAOSHIYANSHUJUBIANDEJIHUBUKENENG。

YAOPINZHUANLIDEYOUXIAOBAOHU:ZHONGGUOXUYAOTIGONGYOUXIAOBAOHULAIFANGZHIBUGONGPINGDESHANGYESHIYONGWEIJINGPILUDECESHI,HAIYOUTIGONGYOUXIAODEZHIFAYIFANGZHIQINFANYAOPINZHUANLI。2017NIAN,ZHONGGUOZAIZHEIYILINGYUFABULECAOAN,DANSHANGWEIZUIZHONGQUEDING。

TONGGUOJIANGUANWEIGUONEICHUANGXINYAOTIGONGKUAISUSHENPI:MEIGUOMAOYIDAIBIAOBANGONGSHIRENWEI,ZHONGGUOTONGGUOTIGONGJIANGUANYOUHUI,XUNQIUCUJINZHENGFUZHUDAODEZIZHUCHUANGXINHEJISHUZHUANRANG。2016NIANGUOWUYUANWEIJINGGONGKAIZHENGQIUYIJIANFABUYIXIANGCUOSHI,WEICHUANGXINYAODESHENPIGUOCHENGTIGONGKUAISUDESHENPICHENGXU。

开心捕鱼 YAOPINZHUCEYUJIAGECHENGNUOGUAGOUWENTI:2016NIANZHONGMEISHANGMAOLIANWEIHUI,ZAIZHIXINGYAOPINJIAGECHENGNUOZHONG,ZHONGFANGBIAOSHIYAOPINZHUCESHENPIBUHUIYUJIAGECHENGNUOGUAGOU,YEBUYAOQIUTIGONGJUTIJIAGEXINXI。MEIGUORENGRANDANXINZHEIXIECHENGNUOSHIFOUHUIDUIXIAN。

(4)网络侵权:外国影视作品内容审查等具体规则修正

WANGLUODAOBANDAJIDEZHIFAWENTI:WANGLUODAOBANZAIZHONGGUORENGDAGUIMOJINXING,YINGXIANGZHEGUANGFANDEXINGYE,BAOKUONEIXIECONGSHIHEFAYINLE、DIANYING、SHUJIHEZAZHI、RUANJIANHESHIPINYOUXIDEXINGYE。

WAIGUOYINGSHIZUOPINNEIRONGSHENCHAZHIDU:USTRRENWEIMEIGUOZHENGFUYINGGAIDUNCUZHONGGUOXIUGAIXIANYOUDEYIXIEGUIZE,ZHEIXIEGUIZEBEIZHENGMINGSHISHIDEQIFANDE。LIRU,DUIWAIGUOYINGSHIZUOPINDENEIRONGSHENCHAZHIDU,KENENGWUYIZHONGCHUANGZAOLEYUNXUDAOBANNEIRONGZAIWANGSHANGQUDAIHEFANEIRONGDETIAOJIAN。

DIANZISHANGWULIFAWENTI:2016NIANJCCTHUIYISHANG,ZHONGGUOTONGYIJIJITUIJINYUDIANZISHANGWUXIANGGUANDELIFA,JIAQIANGDUIWANGLUOQINQUANHEJIAMAOCHANPINDEJIANGUAN,BINGYUMEIGUOHEZUO,TANSUOLIYONGXINFANGFAJIAQIANGWANGLUOZHIFANENGLI。ZHONGGUO2016NIANGONGBULE《DIANZISHANGWUFA(CAOAN)》,MEIGUORENWEIZUIZHONGBANBENYINGGAIYIYOUXIAODE“TONGZHI-SHANCHU”GUIZEYIJIEJUEWANGLUOQINQUANWENTI,TONGSHIWEIHULIANWANGFUWUTIGONGSHANGTIGONGSHIDANGDEBAOHUCUOSHI。

(5)假冒商品:重点关注药品仿冒问题

开心捕鱼 ZHONGGUOXUYAOJIADADUIJIAMAOCHANPINDEZHIFALIDU,MEIGUOTEBIEGUANZHUDESHIYAOPINLINGYU,YOUQISHIZAIDAJIJIAMAOWEILIEYAOWUHUOXINGCHENGFENSHANG。2017NIANZHONGGUOGONGBU《<YAOPINGUANLIFA>XIUZHENGAN(ZHENGQIUYIJIANGAO)》,MUQIANLAIKANHENDUONEIRONGSHIJIJIDE,MEIGUOJIANGMIQIEGUANZHUHOUXUDEFAZHAN。

2.3服务(SERVICES)

ZAIFUWULINGYU,USTRZHONGDIANTICHULEZHONGGUOJINRONGFUWU、DIANYINGDENGSHITINGFUWU、TONGXINFUWU、KUAIDIFUWUHEFALVFUWULINGYUCUNZAISHICHANGZHUNRUXIANZHI、CHIGUBILIXIANZHI、JUTIYEWUXIANZHIHESHELIFENZHIJIGOUDENGSHENPITUOYANDEYINXINGBILEI。

2.4数字贸易壁垒(BARRIERS TO DIGITAL TRADE)

开心捕鱼 ZHENDUISHUZIMAOYILINGYU,USTRZHONGDIANGUANZHULEJINZHIWAIZICANYUYUNJISUAN、WANGYEGUOLVHEPINGBI、WANGLUOYUYINFUWUXIEYI、YUMINGGUIZE、JINZHIKUAJINGSHUJUCHUANSHU、SHIPINPINGTAIBIXUGUOYOU、QIANGZHISHIYONGBENDIJIAMISUANFA、WAIZICANYUHULIANWANGZHIFUFUWUDEXIANZHIDENGMAOYIBILEI。

LEQINGSHICHENGJINYIBIAOJIANYOUXIANGONGSISHIYIJIAYIYANZHI、SHENGCHAN、XIAOSHOUDIANLIYIBIAOWEIZHUDEXIANDAIHUAQIYE。GONGSIZUOLUOYUZHEJIANGLEQINGLIUSHIZHENHUADONGGONGYEQU。GONGSIZHUANYESHENGCHANTONGQIANJIAN、JIEXIANZHU、JIEXIANDUANZI、LINGDIANPAI、DAODIANDAIDENGTONGCHANPIN。GONGSIZHUYINGDETONGQIANJIANCHANPINYOUXIU、YOUZHI。HUODEHAINEIWAITONGXINGDEYIZHIHAOPING。

 

GONGSIYONGYOUQIANGDADEJISHULILIANG,XIANJINDESHENGCHANXIAOYANSHEBEI,WANSHANDESHOUHOUFUWU,QIQUANDEXIAOSHOUWANGLUO。GONGSIYIKAOJISHUCHUANGXINBUDUANTUICHUXINCHANPIN,DADANZHIRUJIAOLIANWENHUA,JIAQIANGTUANDUIHEZUO,TISHENGTUANDUININGJULI、ZHIXINGLI、CHUANGZAOLI;BINGYINRUHEXINJINGXIAOSHANGWEIZHANLVEHEZUOHUOBAN,BUDUANJIAKUAIKEJIBUFA,BUDUANSHIXIANKEJICHUANGXIN,DALIANGYINJINXIANJINDESHENGCHANSHEBEIJIJIANCESHEBEI,YONGJINGZHANDESHEJIJISHU,XINYINGYOUZHIDECHANPINWEIGUANGDAYONGHUTIGONGYILIUDEFUWU。

 

开心捕鱼 GONGSIJIANCHIYISHICHANGXUQIUWEIDAOXIANG;YI“ZHENCHENGHEZUO、GONGYINGFAZHAN”WEIJINGYINGLINIAN;YI“YUANGONGDEMANYI、KEHUDEMANYI”WEIQIYEZONGZHI;HUANYINGGUONEIWAIKESHANGQIANLAIQIATANHEZUO,GONGZHIFANRONGHEFAZHAN。

上一篇:中国出手帮忙,阿根廷牛肉、大豆进入中国大门!人民币展翅高飞?
下一篇:联合国报告:中国专利申请领先全球 占总增量98%

开心捕鱼